In 2011, around $3 Billion in gold that was illegally mined in Peru was exported out of the country.
International monitors estimate that over 20 percent of gold mining activities in the country is done illegally. In the region of Madre de Dios, up to 97 percent of the mining is done by unauthorized miners. Many of the illegal mines employ children, as tens of thousands of children are believed to be working in the mines.
Source: Roberto A. Ferdman, “Peru exports more illegal gold than cocaine, and it’s the world’s biggest exporter of cocaine,” Quartz, September 30, 2013.