Gold smuggling in the Philippines

Law enforcement officials and traders in the Philippines estimate that up to 90 percent of the gold mining done by small-scale miners in the country is sold on the black market and smuggled out of the country.

By law, gold that is mined in the Philippines must be sold to the Central Bank. However, in the second quarter of 2012, the amount of gold sold by small-scale miners dropped by 98 percent from the year before.

Gold Miners are selling their gold on the black market either directly to tourists, or to middlemen who smuggle the gold onto world markets such as Hong Kong.

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Extortion Fee Paid by Miners in Colombia

Illegal mining groups in Colombia are reported to be paying 1 percent of their total production to paramilitary groups such as the FARC. One miner who is involved in unlicensed mining stated that his group pays between $540 to 840 a month in extortion fees.

The Mine Minister of Colombia estimated that at least 40 percent of all mining activities in Colombia in 2011 was unlicensed. The drug trafficking and paramilitary organizations control at least 30 percent of the illegal mining activities.

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